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Fig. 5 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 5

From: In search of druggable targets for GBM amino acid metabolism

Fig. 5

Summary of metabolic pathways in relation to selected potential targets for GBM therapy. The complex interplay among biochemical reactions in amino-acid metabolism in a metabolic network affects mitochondrial energy production and nitrogen utilization. Enzymes are in rounded boxes, and substrates are in squared boxes. A few black boxes highlight the most relevant targets. Abbreviations: ABAT, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase; αKG, alpha-keto-glutarate; ALT, alanine aminotransferase (also known as GPT); ARG, arginine; ASL, argininosuccinate lyase; ASN, asparagine; ASNS, asparagine synthetase; ASP, aspartate; ASPA, aspartoacylase; ASS1, argininosuccinate synthase 1; AST, aspartate aminotransferase (also known as GOT1); BCAAs, branched-chain amino acids; BCAT1, branched chain amino-acid aminotransferase 1; BCKA, branched chain ketoacids; CYS, cysteine; DDO, D-aspartate oxidase; GABA, gamma-amino butyric acid; GAD1, glutamate decarboxylase 1; GLN, glutamine; GLU, glutamate; GLS, glutaminase; GSS, glutathione synthetase; IC, isocitrate; IDHMUT isocitrate dehydrogenase, mutated; 2HG, 2-hydroxyglutarate; NAA, N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid; OA, oxaloacetate; P5C, 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate; PIPOX, pipecolic acid and sarcosine oxidase; PRO, proline; PRODH, proline dehydrogenase; SHMT1, serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1; TCA, tricarboxylic acid

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