This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Acquisition of anoikis resistance in human osteosarcoma cells does not alter sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents
© Díaz-Montero and McIntyre; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2005
Received: 30 August 2004
Accepted: 13 April 2005
Published: 13 April 2005
Chemotherapy-induced cell death can involve the induction of apoptosis. Thus, aberrant function of the pathways involved might result in chemoresistance. Since cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix acts as a survival factor that homeostatically maintains normal tissue architecture, it was tested whether acquisition of resistance to deadhesion-induced apoptosis (anoikis) in human osteosarcoma would result in resistance to chemotherapy.
Osteosarcoma cell lines (SAOS-2 and TE-85) obtained from ATCC and were maintained in complete Eagle's MEM medium. Suspension culture was established by placing cells in tissue culture wells coated with poly-HEMA. Cell cytotoxicity was determined using a live/dead cytotoxicity assay. Cell cycle/apoptosis analyses were performed using propidium iodide (PI) staining with subsequent FACS analysis. Apoptosis was also assayed by Annexin-FITC/PI staining.
Etoposide, adriamycin, vinblastine, cisplatin and paclitaxel were able to induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells SAOS-2 regardless of their anoikis resistance phenotype or the culture conditions (adhered vs. suspended). Moreover, suspended anoikis resistant TE-85 cells (TE-85ar) retained their sensitivity to chemotherapy as well.
Acquisition of anoikis resistance in human osteosarcoma cells does not result in a generalized resistance to all apoptotic stimuli, including chemotherapy. Moreover, our results suggest that the pathways regulating anoikis resistance and chemotherapy resistance might involve the action of different mediators.
During normal organ development apoptosis provides an efficient mechanism whereby unwanted cells are "discretely" eliminated. The functions that ensure proper activation of apoptosis are somehow lost during tumorigenesis, allowing cancer cells to proliferate indefinitely and in an uncontrolled fashion[1, 2].
Apoptosis is triggered by several stimuli including hypoxia, radiation-induced DNA damage, oxidative stress, and lack of attachment. The term anoikis defines the type of apoptosis induced after proper adherence to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is denied[3, 4]. Attachment to the ECM is mainly mediated by integrins; a family of heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of an alpha and a beta chain. In response to physiological clues, bidirectional integrin signaling mediates cell differentiation, proliferation, homing, migration and survival[5, 6]. Integrins lack kinase domains; they signal by associating in complexes with other mediators such as FAK, ILK, Src, Shc, Syk, and paxillin [7–13]. Anoikis resistant tumor cells have circumvented the death signals generated by the lack of attachment affording them increased survival times while migrating to secondary sites. Thus resistance to anoikis has been regarded as a crucial step during tumorigenesis [14–16]. Our previous work has shown that human osteosarcoma cells, SAOS, are sensitive to anoikis. However, anoikis resistance can be driven in originally sensitive clones by alternating culture cycles under adhered and suspended conditions. This resistant phenotype is stable and indicates that the processes of de-adhesion or exposure to a non-adhesive environment acts as a driving force towards anoikis resistance.
While the precise role of anoikis resistance in osteosarcoma progression is still unclear, chemoresistance continues to be an important problem in the clinic. Despite significant advances in the treatment of osteosarcoma, the prognosis of patients with metastasis at presentation remains poor, with an overall survival of 55% after aggressive chemotherapy and surgery[19, 20]. Historically, resistance to chemotherapy has been attributed to the overexpression of genes encoding cellular efflux pumps. Recent studies have shown that the action of many anti-cancer agents results in apoptosis, therefore alterations in the apoptotic pathway may also confer multidrug resistance [22–24]. Since the general acquisition of apoptosis resistance would affect both de-adhesion and chemotherapy-induced cell death, we investigated whether acquisition of anoikis resistance conferred general resistance to other apoptotic inducers or was independent of these other apoptotic pathways.
Cell culture and reagents
The parental human osteosarcoma cell lines SAOS-2 (SAOSp) and TE-85 (TE-85p) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). SAOSp and TE-85p cells were maintained in Eagle's MEM (BioWhittaker, Walkersville, MD), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (BioWhittaker, Walkersville, MD), 2 mM L-glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate and non-essential amino acids (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). Anoikis resistant SAOS (SAOSar) and TE-85 (TE-85ar) cells were generated by sequential cycles of culture on untreated (adhered) and poly-HEMA treated cell culture wells (suspended). The resulting variants were maintained in culture under adhered conditions. Poly-HEMA was prepared by dissolving it in 95% ethanol to a concentration of 50 mg/ml. Poly-HEMA was added to cell culture wells at a density of 5 mg/cm2 and allowed to dry overnight, under sterile conditions in a laminar flow hood. Etoposide, vinblastine and paclitaxel were purchased from Sigma, St. Louis, MO. Cisplatin was purchased from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ. Adriamycin was purchased from GensiaSicor™ Pharmaceuticals, Irvine, CA. In vitro LD50 for each agent was determined. One in vitro LD50 is defined as the dose required to induce apoptosis in approximately 50% of the cells in 24 hr of culture.
Live/Dead cytotoxicity assay
SAOSp and SAOSar were cultured under suspended conditions (poly-HEMA treated cell culture wells) for 24 h. After culture cells were washed with PBS, and pellets resuspended in 250 μl of PBS containing 2 μM Calcein-AM and 8 μM ethidium homodimer-1 (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). Cells were incubated at room temperature for 15 minutes and visualized using a fluorescent inverted microscope.
Cell cycle/apoptosis analyses were performed using propidiumiodide (PI) staining with subsequent FACS analysis. 5 × 105 cells/well were cultured either on plastic or poly-HEMA treated 6-well tissue culture plates with or without the metabolic inhibitors and drugs for 24 hrs at 37°C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. After incubation, adherent cells were detached with trypsin (0.5% trypsin/0.1% EDTA in PBS). Detached and suspended cells were harvested in complete EMEM medium and centrifuged at 500 g for 10 min. Pellets were washed with PBS and fixed with ice cold 75% ethanol overnight at 4°C. After fixation, cells were washed with PBS and stained with 500 μl of PI solution (50 μg/ml in PBS) containing 25 μg/ml of RNase. Cells were incubated at 37°C for 30 min and analyzed by flow cytometry on an Epics Profile flow cytometer (Coulter, Miami, FL). Apoptosis was also assayed by Annexin-FITC/PI staining following manufacturer instructions (Trevigen, Inc. Gaithersburg, MD). Briefly, treated or untreated cells were collected and washed in cold PBS. Cells were incubated for 15 min at room temperature in the presence of 1 μl Annexin V-FITC, 1 μl of propidium iodide and 98 μl of 1x binding buffer (all reagents provided by the manufacturer). After incubation, 400 μl of 1X binding buffer was added to each tube, and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.
During tumorigenesis the delicate balance between survival and cell death is altered. Thus, cancer cells are able to survive under adverse conditions that normally would trigger apoptosis such as hypoxia, low glucose, and lack of attachment.
Until recently it was thought that resistance to chemotherapy was due to mechanisms that prevented the intake of the drug or the presence of intracellular detoxificants. Since the discovery that drug-mediated cell death can be the result of physiological processes such as apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe and cellular senescence, resistance to chemotherapy has been linked to alterations in the pathways mediating such processes. [22–26].
Resistance to detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) is known as a important step during metastasis by affording tumor cells increased survival times while migrating to secondary sites. However, the relationship between anoikis resistance and chemotherapy response remains to be elucidated. Previously, we have shown that anoikis resistance can be induced in anoikis sensitive human osteosarcoma cells, SAOS-2, by exposure to culture in suspension (poly-HEMA treated culture wells). We also demonstrated that oxidative damage (H2O2), inhibition of protein synthesis (cycloheximide) or inhibition of calcium-dependent protein kinases (staurosporine) resulted in apoptosis of adherent SAOS-2 cells regardless of their anoikis resistant phenotype. This suggested that under adhered conditions the apoptotic machinery was intact.
In this study, we tested whether the anti-apoptotic mechanisms that rendered the cells anoikis resistant would be activated upon detachment from the ECM, resulting in a more generalized resistance to apoptosis and hence to chemotherapy. For instance, in acute myelogeneous leukemia interactions between α4β1 integrins and fibronectin activate the PI3-K/Akt pathway resulting in resistance to both anoikis and to treatment with daunorubicin or AraC. By contrast, our data suggested that despite the resistant phenotype and the suspended conditions, apoptosis can still be induced by oxidative damage, inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of calcium-dependent protein kinases in anoikis resistant SAOSar cells. Furthermore, anoikis resistant SAOSar cells are equally sensitive to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis when compared to anoikis sensitive SAOSp cells under either suspended or adhered culture conditions. Similar results were obtained after anoikis sensitive and anoikis resistant TE-85 cells were treated with the same agents.
The chemotherapeutic agents tested vary widely in their mode of action; etoposide, adriamycin and cisplatin cause DNA damage by forming DNA adducts or by inhibiting topoisomerase II resulting in DNA breaks. Vinblastine and paclitaxel target the microtubules and are known as "spindle poisons", however their mode of action is different. Vinblastine binds to tubulin dimers preventing the formation of microtubules and paclitaxel binds to the microtubules inducing mitotic arrest by excessively stabilizing them. Regardless of their mode of action, under adhered conditions the in vitro LD50 for etoposide, adriamycin, vinblastine, cisplatin or paclitaxel was similar for both SAOSp and SAOSar cells. Similar levels of apoptosis were found after suspended SAOSp and SAOSar cells were treated with the same doses of the different agents. The same was observed after suspended TE-85p and TE-85ar cells were treated with the same agents. These data suggest that acquisition of anoikis resistance does not necessarily render osteosarcoma cells resistant to other apoptotic stimuli including chemotherapy.
The specific mechanisms involved in anoikis resistance are not completely understood. Overexpression of oncogenes such as ras, raf, rac and src as well as the deletion of tumor suppressor genes such as PTEN and p53 have been associated with resistance to anoikis [28–30]. Recently it was reported that TrkB, a nerurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, is able to suppress anoikis of non-malignant epithelial cells by activating the PI3-K/Akt pathway. Activated Akt exerts its anti-apoptotic effect by modulating the activity of mediators that are directly involved in the apoptotic cascade or by regulating the transcription of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes [32–34]. Normal breast epithelial cells expressing constitutively active Akt1 lose their sensitivity to anoikis and become resistant to apoptosis after treatment with cisplatin and mitoxantrone. Likewise, in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells increased activity of Akt in response to overexpression of carcinoembryionic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)6 results in resistance to both anoikis and gemcitabine treatment. In these systems, Akt protects cells against death induced after DNA damage as well as death induced by anoikis. In our osteosarcoma model, it is clear that resistance to anoikis is independent of resistance to other apoptotic inducers. We have recently found that activation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway is important during anoikis resistance (Díaz-Montero CM and McIntyre BW, unpublished data). Since these cells are still sensitive to other apoptosis inducing agents, upregulation of Akt is not sufficient to confer resistance to all apoptotic stimuli.
Furthermore, in breast cancer cell lines SKBR-3 and MDA-MB-453, anoikis resistance can be restored by induction of ILK, independently of Akt activity. These different studies suggest that the mechanisms that confer resistance to anoikis and/or chemotherapy may be unique to each type of malignancy. Thus it can be argued that anti-cancer agents that target apoptosis will be less effective against malignancies in which the pathways for resistance to both apoptosis and anoikis overlap. Likewise, therapies that can inhibit a common apoptosis and anoikis resistance pathway could be a potent new anti-cancer treatment.
Our work suggests that in at least two human osteosarcoma cell lines, resistance to anoikis and apoptosis are regulated by different mediators, and might explain why anoikis resistant cells are still vulnerable to other apoptosis-inducing stimuli. This is a fortunate situation except in those cases where the tumor cells have detached from the primary sites and survive because of the induction of anoikis resistance. In many cases, tumor cells that lose normal adhesive constraints will enter cell cycle arrest and thus be refractory to many chemotherapeutic reagents. In this scenario, the ability to target the anoikis resistance pathway may provide a new approach for chemotherapy.
In conclusion, in order to effectively target anoikis resistant/migrating metastatic tumor cells the apoptotic pathways that are altered and the ones that remain normal need to be identified. Only then, agents with specific action against the mediators involved during the relevant disease stage, i.e. primary vs. metastatic, will become available as more efficient treatment strategies.
The development of newer and more efficacious treatments against cancer will require the understanding of the mechanisms behind apoptosis and/or anoikis resistance in a disease-specific way. We have shown that acquisition of resistance to anoikis in human osteosarcoma cells does not necessarily result in a generalized resistance to all apoptotic stimuli. Thus in this particular system, targeting the pathways involved might control the spread of anoikis resistant/migrating metastatic cells.
The authors are grateful to Karen Ramirez for flow cytometry analyses and to Ricky Rojas and James Wygant for technical assistance. This work was supported by the NIH grants T32DE015355-01, CA 62596 and CA 166672 Cancer Center Support Core Grant, a Kleberg Fund for Innovative Research Institutional Grant and by the Onstead Foundation for Osteosarcoma Research.
- Hanahan D, Weinberg RA: The hallmarks of cancer. Cell. 2000, 100: 57-70. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81683-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hickman JA: Apoptosis and tumourigenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002, 12: 67-72. 10.1016/S0959-437X(01)00266-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frisch SM, Francis H: Disruption of epithelial cell-matrix interactions induces apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 1994, 124: 619-626. 10.1083/jcb.124.4.619.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meredith JEJ: The extracellular matrix as a cell survival factor. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 1993, 4: 953-961.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Miranti CK, Brugge JS: Sensing the environment: a historical perspective on integrin signal transduction. Nat Cell Biol. 2002, 4: E83-90. 10.1038/ncb0402-e83.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Giancotti FG, Ruoslahti E: Integrin signaling. Science. 1999, 285: 1028-1032. 10.1126/science.285.5430.1028.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu S, Calderwood DA, Ginsberg MH: Integrin cytoplasmic domain-binding proteins. J Cell Sci. 2000, 113 ( Pt 20): 3563-3571.Google Scholar
- Cary LA, Guan JL: Focal adhesion kinase in integrin-mediated signaling. Front Biosci. 1999, 4: D102-13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jones RJ, Brunton VG, Frame MC: Adhesion-linked kinases in cancer; emphasis on src, focal adhesion kinase and PI 3-kinase. Eur J Cancer. 2000, 36: 1595-1606. 10.1016/S0959-8049(00)00153-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turner CE: Paxillin and focal adhesion signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2000, 2: E231-6. 10.1038/35046659.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ravichandran KS: Signaling via Shc family adapter proteins. Oncogene. 2001, 20: 6322-6330. 10.1038/sj.onc.1204776.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miranti CK, Leng L, Maschberger P, Brugge JS, Shattil SJ: Identification of a novel integrin signaling pathway involving the kinase Syk and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1. Curr Biol. 1998, 8: 1289-1299. 10.1016/S0960-9822(07)00559-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wu C: ILK interactions. J Cell Sci. 2001, 114: 2549-2550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shanmugathasan M, Jothy S: Apoptosis, anoikis and their relevance to the pathobiology of colon cancer. Pathol Int. 2000, 50: 273-279. 10.1046/j.1440-1827.2000.01047.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Normanno N, De Luca A, Bianco C, Maiello MR, Carriero MV, Rehman A, Wechselberger C, Arra C, Strizzi L, Sanicola M, Salomon DS: Cripto-1 overexpression leads to enhanced invasiveness and resistance to anoikis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2004, 198: 31-39. 10.1002/jcp.10375.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swan EA, Jasser SA, Holsinger FC, Doan D, Bucana C, Myers JN: Acquisition of anoikis resistance is a critical step in the progression of oral tongue cancer. Oral Oncol. 2003, 39: 648-655. 10.1016/S1368-8375(03)00049-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marco RAW, Diaz-Montero CM, N. WJ, Kleinerman ES, W. MIB: a4 Integrin increases anoikis of human osteosarcoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2003, 88: 1038-1047. 10.1002/jcb.10465.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Diaz-Montero CM, McIntyre BW: Acquisition of anoikis resistance in human osteosarcoma cells. Eur J Cancer. 2003, 39: 2395-2402. 10.1016/S0959-8049(03)00575-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferguson WS, Goorin AM: Current treatment of osteosarcoma. Cancer Invest. 2001, 19: 292-315. 10.1081/CNV-100102557.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bacci G, Briccoli A, Rocca M, Ferrari S, Donati D, Longhi A, Bertoni F, Bacchini P, Giacomini S, Forni C, Manfrini M, Galletti S: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for osteosarcoma of the extremities with metastases at presentation: recent experience at the Rizzoli Institute in 57 patients treated with cisplatin, doxorubicin, and a high dose of methotrexate and ifosfamide. Ann Oncol. 2003, 14: 1126-1134. 10.1093/annonc/mdg286.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borges-Walmsley MI, McKeegan KS, Walmsley AR: Structure and function of efflux pumps that confer resistance to drugs. Biochem J. 2003, 376: 313-338. 10.1042/BJ20020957.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Schmitt CA, Lowe SW: Apoptosis and therapy. J Pathol. 1999, 187: 127-137. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199901)187:1<127::AID-PATH251>3.3.CO;2-K.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGill G: Apoptosis in tumorigenesis and cancer therapy. Front Biosci. 1997, 2: d353-79.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim R, Toge T: Changes in therapy for solid tumors: potential for overcoming drug resistance in vivo with molecular targeting agents. Surg Today. 2004, 34: 293-303. 10.1007/s00595-003-2710-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmitt CA, Fridman JS, Yang M, Lee S, Baranov E, Hoffman RM, Lowe SW: A senescence program controlled by p53 and p16INK4a contributes to the outcome of cancer therapy. Cell. 2002, 109: 335-346. 10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00734-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang BD, Swift ME, Shen M, Fang J, Broude EV, Roninson IB: Molecular determinants of terminal growth arrest induced in tumor cells by a chemotherapeutic agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002, 99: 389-394. 10.1073/pnas.012602599.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Matsunaga T, Takemoto N, Sato T, Takimoto R, Tanaka I, Fujimi A, Akiyama T, Kuroda H, Kawano Y, Kobune M, Kato J, Hirayama Y, Sakamaki S, Kohda K, Miyake K, Niitsu Y: Interaction between leukemic-cell VLA-4 and stromal fibronectin is a decisive factor for minimal residual disease of acute myelogenous leukemia. Nat Med. 2003, 9: 1158-1165. 10.1038/nm909.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frisch SM, Ruoslahti E: Integrins and anoikis. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1997, 9: 701-706. 10.1016/S0955-0674(97)80124-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frisch SM, Screaton RA: Anoikis mechanisms. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001, 13: 555-562. 10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00251-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grossmann J: Molecular mechanisms of "detachment-induced apoptosis-Anoikis". Apoptosis. 2002, 7: 247-260. 10.1023/A:1015312119693.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Douma S, Van Laar T, Zevenhoven J, Meuwissen R, Van Garderen E, Peeper DS: Suppression of anoikis and induction of metastasis by the neurotrophic receptor TrkB. Nature. 2004, 430: 1034-1039. 10.1038/nature02765.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicholson KM, Anderson NG: The protein kinase B/Akt signalling pathway in human malignancy. Cell Signal. 2002, 14: 381-395. 10.1016/S0898-6568(01)00271-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada KM, Araki M: Tumor suppressor PTEN: modulator of cell signaling, growth, migration and apoptosis. J Cell Sci. 2001, 114: 2375-2382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scheid MP, Woodgett JR: Unravelling the activation mechanisms of protein kinase B/Akt. FEBS Lett. 2003, 546: 108-112. 10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00562-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt M, Hovelmann S, Beckers TL: A novel form of constitutively active farnesylated Akt1 prevents mammary epithelial cells from anoikis and suppresses chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Br J Cancer. 2002, 87: 924-932. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6600566.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Duxbury MS, Ito H, Benoit E, Waseem T, Ashley SW, Whang EE: A novel role for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 as a determinant of gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2004, 64: 3987-3993.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang SC, Makino K, Xia W, Kim JS, Im SA, Peng H, Mok SC, Singletary SE, Hung MC: DOC-2/hDab-2 inhibits ILK activity and induces anoikis in breast cancer cells through an Akt-independent pathway. Oncogene. 2001, 20: 6960-6964. 10.1038/sj.onc.1204873.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://0-www.biomedcentral.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/1471-2407/5/39/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.